This page gives links to historical weather data.
RAW weather data for many meteorological stations are available from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) website:
Note to self (and others): When searching for early data don’t forget to tick the “closed” (station) button.
I copy the text from these webpages and paste it into text files, with some manual format changes to render the text files readable by computer software packages such as MATLAB.
Synoptic charts for Australia are available from the BoM back to 1999 at this link:
HadCET (Central England Temperatures) data can be downloaded as text files from here:
Archives of synoptic charts centred on the UK (but covering most of the Atlantic and Europe) are available from:
http://old.wetterzentrale.de/topkarten/tkfaxbraar.htm (UK Met Office synoptic charts back to 27/1/1998)
http://old.wetterzentrale.de/topkarten/fsreaeur.html (NCEP reanalysis synoptic and temperature charts back to 1/1/1871)
Some weather stations archive their own data online, I have found the following sites useful:
https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/dtg/weather/index-daily-text.html (Cambridge half-hourly weather data archive)
http://weather.elec.york.ac.uk/archive.html (York daily weather data archive)
http://www.iceni.org.uk/index/dwolinks.htm (Royston daily weather data archive)
http://www.weatherfamily.org/bracknell/wxarchive.html (Bracknell daily weather archive)
http://www.martynhicks.uk/weather/data.php?page=months (Bristol daily weather archive)